Saturday, June 20, 2020
Project 4: Abnormal Psychology (Psychological Disorders) (Other (Not Listed) Sample) Content: Dissociative Identity Disorder Experiment Analysis Name:Institution:Dissociative Identity Disorder Experiment Analysis Dissociative Identity Disorder, previously identified as Multiple Personality Disorder remains an attractive point of discussion in psychological medicine and educational corridors. To date, the disease continues to elicit controversy as researchers seek to identify myths and make revealing truths about the condition. While the topic remains controversial, researchers strive to understand the existing etiology and methods used in Dissociative Identity Disorder. Notably, researchers have little literature on the performance of cognitive developments where human memory is the dominant symptoms (Butcher, Hooley Mineka, 2015). Before analyzing the experiment carried out, it is pertinent to make a summary of the problem of multiple personalities. The essay introduces Dissociative Identity Disorder with the surrounding controversies, theories, and finding s. Finally, the paper identifies the hypothesis applied for the experiment, the patients under study and made a summary of the conclusions of the investigation. There are different theories, and definitions scholars have given as they seek to shade more light on the pertinent topic of dissociation.Dissociation can be defined as the alienation of psychological processes which in normal individuals integrate life memories and emotions. Scholars argue that Dissociation Identity Disorders are a form of psychological reaction to past situations that may have been traumatic. Some scholars claim that it is a mechanism human beings use to protect themselves from traumatic situations from the past (Barlow, 2005). Over time researchers continue to seek more knowledge on dissociation models. This is because of the increasing cases of trauma and how people suffering from severe cases of trauma are undergoing acute psychological stress. There is need to understand the human brain to ascertain an d find the solution to Dissociation Identity Disorder. The experiment tested self-reported switching in the student as well as DID group participants to seek new knowledge on the effects of trauma on individuals. The investigation addressed how several personality disorders such as childhood traumas affect the adult life and relationships of people. HypothesesThe experiment applied some assumptions that include; In comparison to unshared memories, there is a strong sense of structure and sense in shared memories as participants show a deeper connection with close memories. Secondly, the dissociative identity disorder subjects will reveal or have no shortage of memory on the list of words to remember. Thirdly, the university participants, as well as DID subjects, will get the same treatment regarding the learning of particular tasks relevant to the experiment. Finally, the trial will test integration and switch among the participants (Barlow, 2005). ExperimentThe lab test carried com parative tests on two distinct groups of women. First, it examined eleven women to gain deeper knowledge and understanding on the topic fragmented and memory loss in multiple personality disorder patients and another study on 13 women drawn from the university. The purpose of the survey was to add to existing literature by using broad concepts of memory in DID. The experiment applied relevant memory examination, switching as well integrating memory. The eleven participants undertook an experiment that ran for two sessions testing different measures of memory. While the women received no specific instructions regarding changing between alters, the research later required them to answer how many times they had changed. The experiment subjects comprised of university girls randomly sampled from a class of psychology. The researcher used the normal students as a baseline for carrying out the experiment on memory tasks. Before the experiment, some subjects were screened for Dissociative Identity Disorder, and those who scored better on Dissociative Experience Scale returned for the test. On the other side, DID group comprised of 11 women suffering from Dissociative Identity Disorder. The sampling of the participants in this group needed qualified subjects to have confirmed diagnosis of DID. ResultsThe results of the experiment showed that the DID group participants reported superior traumatic cases as compared to 13 participants drawn from the university. The participants, when compared to the students quickly, reproduced memories based on cues given. The experiment further revealed that the women suffering from the disorder had poor abilities when asked to provide sufficient answers to difficult questions that surrounded fear unlike in questions deemed neutral (Barlow, 2005). When compared to the university students, there was no decrease inability to provide adequate answers to similar questions. DID participants showed better abilities in reading words reversed in mirrors as compared to university students. It is pertinent to note that the results from the similar experiment had little statistical significance. The results further indicated same properties when it came to shared and unshared memories. Experiment ConclusionsThe tentative conclusion from the study indicates that common switching can slow the time it takes for individuals to react to situations and tasks ...
Wednesday, May 27, 2020
The Beatitudes from the Sermon on the Mount and the Nicomachean Ethics both depict happiness. Happiness is the mental or emotional state of well-being and contentment. These works explain how to attain happiness. Aristotles view of happiness is comparable with happiness describe in the Bible because both versions are depicted as something that can be worked for. However, they are different because the Beatitudes provide a version of happiness that is open for everyone to experience. The Sermon on the Mount is a collection of Jesus teachings at the mountain top, recorded in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament, in Chapters 5-7. Jesus discusses various topics to teach the people how to live pleasing to Him, free from hypocrisy, full of love and grace, and abundant in wisdom and discernment. In this sermon, Jesus declares the beatitudes before the people. Matthew then tells the people of Jesus parable of the salt and light. The meaning of the parable is Christians we are called to be an example and have an impact on the world. Jesus informs the people, He has come to fulfill the law, and they must follow the commandments. Just so, your light must shine before others, that they may see your good works (Matthew 5:16). The people were also taught to not be angry, because that is similar to killing, it is a negative emotion that can result in regrettable actions. He also encourages them to not commit adultery or look at another human being with lust. Furthermore, divorce is adultery and anyone who marries a divorced person commits adultery. He declares false oaths, retaliation and swearing by earth or heaven as sin. The last topic discussed in Matthew chapter 5 was love of enemies. Jesus wants His people to love one another whether they consider the person good or bad and wh ether or not they have a good relationship. These topics help to achieve happiness by giving guidelines to follow. Obedience to these rules will create a stronger relationship with God, and He in turn will pour out his reward of eternal life in Heaven. According to Jesus happiness comes from a relationship with him and obtaining His reward. In Matthew, Chapter 6 Jesus begins by discussing almsgiving. Almsgiving is doing something without looking for the recognition or praise from it. Next He teaches them that they ought to pray with sincerity and not with the goal of being seen. Jesus teaches them the prayer called The Lords Prayer. Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will be done, on earth as is in heaven. Give us today our daily bread; and forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors; and do not subject us to the final test, but deliver us from the evil one. (Matthew 6:9-13) This prayer helps build relation with Christ, to ultimately enter into Heaven. After the prayer Jesus teaches about fasting. Christians should in terms of appearance not neglect themselves, so it appears to others they have fasted but instead have it be that only the Father knows they are fasting. Jesus also lets the people know they should not be invested in materialism but rather wait to receive treasures from above. Jesus also taught the people they should look upon things that are good to keep their soul holy. Furthermore, Christians should have a dependence on God and serve him only not the pleasures of this world according to Christ. In Chapter 6, Jesus expounds on principles that join Christians into communion with Him, which ultimately is true happiness. In Matthew Chapter 7, Jesus tells the people at the mountaintop that they need to stop judging others because as they judge one another God will judge them. Also, He inspired them to give what is holy unto the Lord, because he will answer all of their prayers and requests. Jesus give the golden rule: Do to others whatever you would have them do to you (Matthew 7:12). In other words, Christians must treat others the way they want to be treated and follow the path that leads to God. Jesus warns the people of false prophets and ends the sermon on the mount by telling the people what a true disciple looks like. Jesus does not want the people to listen to false prophets because they will misguide them on how to achieve true happiness. False prophets put the focus on themselves rather than pleasing God and creating a relationship with Him. As stated previously, in the sermon on the mount, Jesus tells the people the Beatitudes. The Beatitudes present virtues that lead to a reward of Heaven, provide a way of life that brings salvation, and bring peace in the midst of trials and tribulations on this earth. The beatitudes go against the general behaviors and thinking of humans, so when completed Jesus offers the reward of eternal life in Heaven. The beatitudes are: Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are they who mourn, for they shall be comforted. Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are they who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they shall be satisfied. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure of heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God. Blessed are they who are persecuted for the sake of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:3-10) The beatitudes call Those who completely rely and trust on God, will go to heaven. Comfort will be brought to those who mourn. The meek will receive spiritual blessings from God. Those who seek God will be filled by Him. People who act with mercy with receive mercy. Christians who are blameless will see God. Those who create peace God will call them his children. Those who are judged for following God will enter into heaven. Each beatitude beings with blessed which is a term meaning happy. Jesus is telling the people happy is anyone who follows the beatitudes. This happiness comes from God He created Christians to find total and complete joy within Him and following His will. Happiness comes from giving their lives over to Christ where he removes all emptiness, brokenness, and sins. Christians live a holy life by focusing on His will, which gives them the ability to love God completely and love their neighbor as God loves them. We get happiness through the reward of heaven. Rejoice and be glad, for your reward will be great in heaven (Matthew 5:12). In class we also read Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle. Aristotles goal of the book was to determine how best to achieve (eudamonia) happiness. All human activities aim at some end that we consider good with most activities being a means to a higher end. The highest human good, then, is that activity that is an end in itself. That good being happiness we aim at for its own sake, not because happiness helps us realize some other end. Living out the virtues gives us happiness. Virtue is a frame of mind rather than a task. Someone who is virtuous behaves correctly naturally and finds enjoyment in it. Aristotle discusses the various moral virtues and their corresponding vices. Courage is confidence in the face of fear. Liberality and magnificence consist of giving away varying amounts of money in appropriate and tasteful ways. Temperance includes not giving in too easily to the pleasures of physical sensation. Patience is the appropriate response to anger. Justice incudes distribution of wealth or honors among a group of people being given according to merit and exchanges between two or more people aiming at balance and equality. Human nature avoids treating oneself unjustly and suffering injustice willingly. Prudence is the intellectual virtue that helps us reason properly about ethical matters. Incontinence is a peculiar form of badness. Unlike vice, incontinence does not involve willing bad behavior. Rather, it consists of knowing what is good but lacking the self-control to do good. Incontinence is not as bad as vice, since it is partially involuntary. Aristotle then explains different forms of friendships. The three kinds of friendship are: friendship based on utility, friendship based on pleasure, and friendship based on goodness of character. The first two kinds of friendship are based on superficial qualities, so these friendships are not generally long lasting. Friendship based on goodness of character is the best kind of friendship, because these friends love one another for who they are and not for what they stand to gain from one another. Friendship generally exists between equals, though there are cases, like the father-son relationship, which rely on unequal exchanges. Ideally, our feelings for our friends should reflect our feelings for ourselves. Self-love is more important than friendship, since only people who treat themselves with appropriate care and respect can achieve proper virtue and happiness. Though a happy person is theoretically self-sufficient, friendship is an important and essential aspect of the good life. Pleasure accompanies and perfects our activities. A good person will feel pleasure in doing good things. The highest good of all is rational contemplation. A life that consists exclusively of contemplation is obviously impossible, but we should aim to approximate this ideal as closely as possible. The practical sciences, then, help us find the right path toward this highest good and help us deal with the practical matters of everyday life that inevitably occupy a great deal of our time and attention. Aristotle ends the Nicomachean Ethics discussing how to obtain eudaimonia. Eudaimonia is specifically an objective sense of conten tment. Through eudaimonia Aristotle realizes the best life for human beings is one grounded in rational activity. Aristotles view on happiness and the beatitudes depiction is comparable. In both we see a happiness built from following a certain set of rules. Jesus wants Christians to follow the beatitudes to receive happiness from Him, Aristotle believes happiness comes from practicing the virtues. Also, the happiness is self-dependent it is not automatically given but must be worked for. The Aristotle pointed out that genuine happiness is complete and sufficient unto itself. However, Aristotle does not believe happiness was possible for everyone. Jesus came to save us so that everyone could receive happiness. Jesus happiness is accessible for everyone while Aristotles natural happiness is the result of emotional stability brought about by the virtues. Conclusion It also throws light on various aspects of their lives, including the issues of anger, fasting, forgiveness, divorce, faith, prayer, justice, care for the needy, handling the religious law, lust, judging other people, and salvation, and mercy.
Monday, May 18, 2020
The theories of Laura Mulvey and Bell Hooks share their views on how individuals who attend the cinema have the opportunity to gaze and interrupt the messages that are being portrayed. Based upon their views, spectators can have their own beliefs and views of life and not have to focus on societal practices of racism and sexism. The article Ã¢â¬Å"Visual Pleasure and Narrative CinemaÃ¢â¬ critiqued by Mulvey, focused on how sexism and voyeurism were the main theme in terms of how males dominated society and how woman were subservient to males due to castration. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"In Black Looks: Race and RepresentationÃ¢â¬ Chapter 7, The Oppositional Gaze, Hooks mainly focused on black womanÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and touches on both sexism and male/white female dominance over them. Both Mulvey and Hooks help to focus ones attention on how the white male sexist and black racial domination is portrayed by Hollywood in cinema. An example of this portrayal is represented by the movie Ã¢â¬Å"The HelpÃ¢â¬ , produced in 2011 and directed by Tate Taylor. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s filmmakers have three areas to focus on: the event or theme of the film, the audience who will be watching the film, and lastly, the individual characters and the roles they play and how they are portrayed and interpreted. Many of these films bottom line objectives are to focus on the Ã¢â¬Å"erotic needs of the male ego.Ã¢â¬ The focus on fetishistic scopophilia tend to slant the view such that we see the world as being dominated by men and that woman areShow MoreRelatedIdentity and Women Issues in Pour it up by Rihanna 2183 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"No matter how much people may talk about its artistic merit, it nonetheless objectifies and therefore demeans women by casting them in the mould of whore.Ã¢â¬ (Cox) The present statement is what Laura Cox, journalist at the Daily Mail, summarizes of Ã¢â¬Å"Pour it upÃ¢â¬ , the music video released in 2013 by Rihanna to launch her new song (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehcVomMexkY). The video is constructed on an extreme usage of femaleÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies and it poorly represents the image of women expressedRead MoreAnalysis Of The Film Chocolat Essay1937 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesunorthodox to usual cinema. Through my study I am going to focus on key theories such as representation and ideology. I will be trying to analyze some key scenes and themes from the movie Chocolat through these theories. These concepts are quite common in media studies. Media representations are nothing but the ways in which media portrays groups, communities, ideas, experiences or topics from an ideological or value perspectives. Bell Hooks is one of the key theorists who has explored the concept of representation
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Next to of course god america iÃ¢â¬ is a poem by E. E. Cummings that satirizes the arrogant adamancy with which politicians speak of patriotism in order to fabricate an idealistic sense of national pride. Saturated with uncommon poetic practices, Cummings exploits unconventional syntax, lack of punctuation, and an overall rushed, seemingly nonsensical form of writing to emphasize the satirical tone of the poem and to poke fun at the absurdity of the lengths to which patriotism goes. Ã¢â¬Å"Next to of course god america iÃ¢â¬ toys with diction, syntax, punctuation, and form in a way that makes reading the poem difficult, much the same way as Cummings finds it difficult to understand the message about patriotism the speaker in the first stanza, aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Furthermore, the poem breaks up the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue at key points. In line 9, for example, the word Ã¢â¬Å"beautifulÃ¢â¬ used to describe the selfless actions of soldiers voluntarily dyin g for their country is split between two lines, demonstrating that the words the politician is speaking hold no strength or validity and that there is no beauty in dying even for your country The lack of proper punctuation that mergers lines together and the extended length of the first stanza lends an air of nonsense, adding to the idea that this presumably patriotic speech is empty of any meaning; the speaker is simply rambling on, Ã¢â¬Å"and so forthÃ¢â¬ (line 2), and reciting worn out, clichÃ © sayings such as Ã¢â¬Å"heroic happy deadÃ¢â¬ in line 10 that ring hollow (Ã¢â¬Å"E.E. Cummings,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). The last line denotes a new speaker who serves to expose the corruption of the first speaker by stating that the politician Ã¢â¬Å"[drinks] rapidly a glass of waterÃ¢â¬ because he just thoughtlessly, and nervously, attempted to opaque the fallacies of patriotism with propaganda (Brierley, 2013). The poem begins with the line Ã¢â¬Å"next to of course god america iÃ¢â¬ that can be seen as a juxtaposition between America and the people. The words Ã¢â¬Å"god,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"america,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"iÃ¢â¬ are placed in order of decreasing importance, thus implying that patriotism is a natural duty, for America as a whole is more important than any one person. Furthermore, by presenting Ã¢â¬Å"godÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"americaÃ¢â¬ in lowercase letters, Cummings allows the reader to inferShow MoreRelatedNext to of Course God America I by E.E. Cummings Essay645 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesNext to of Course God America I by E.E. Cummings e. e. cummings poem, next to of course god america i, is a wonderful example of stylistic variation in a text. Once again, we see his skill and mastery at manipulating the English language in order to foreground a thought and turn it into a commentary on society. As with all of cummings works, there is evidence of a multitude of variances and deviances at work, however, I shall concentrate on the area of language variance, more specificallyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem I Buffalo Bill s Essay1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages With the three poems Ã¢â¬Å"next to of course god america iÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"the Cambridge ladies who live in furnished soulsÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"[Buffalo BillÃ¢â¬â¢s] e e cummings paints a very grim picture of American ideals and shows his disdain for much of the cultural identity that Americans share. In the poems Ã¢â¬Å"next to of course god america iÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the Cambridge ladies who live in furnished soulsÃ¢â¬ he lampoons politicians and a certain cl ass of women. In Ã¢â¬Å"[Buffalo BillÃ¢â¬â¢s]Ã¢â¬ he declares a cultural icon to be Ã¢â¬Å"defunctÃ¢â¬ and withinRead MoreSuper Sad True Love Story1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSuper Sad True Love Story, America, next to of course god america i, and I, Too, Sing America, are all story/poems that in some form or another address the theme of American exceptionalism and patriotism. In each of the titles, it is established that America is not as revered as it once was or possibly could be and that change needs to take place. Through dystopian tales, satirical speeches and exaggerated ideals the authors of these works of literature try to identify the issues faced in AmericanRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Unknown Citizen 1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The Unknown CitizenÃ¢â¬ by W.H Auden and Ã¢â¬Å"next to of course god america iÃ¢â¬ by e.e. cumming are two poems that deal with similar issues. They both address the issue of dying soldiers and blame blind patriotism for the deaths of these soldiers. The theme of both poems deals with the need for citizens to become more outspoken and follow their own beliefs instead of simply following their country. However, each poem addresses a topic that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t found in the other poem, and the poems themselves are structurallyRead MoreSonnet Analysis1471 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhereas Cummings uses his fourteen lines to critique post-World War I society in his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"next to of course god america i,Ã¢â¬ Millay reclaims the sonnet from the male gaze and writes from the perspective of the liberated 20th-century woman in Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, oh, you will be sorry.Ã¢â¬ Bringing the classical poetic form into the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s, both poets alter the traditional sonnet to provide a modern critique of social issues in early 20th Century America. E.E. Cummings witnessed first-hand the devastation of war-tornRead More Dulce et Decorum Est Essay1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWilfred OwenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ and E. E CummingsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Å"next to of course god america iÃ¢â¬ are poems that critique patriotic propaganda. Both poems use words and images to effectively depict the influence that patriotic propaganda has on war. Ã¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ uses descriptive words to create realistic images of the horrors soldiers are faced with during combat, whereas Ã¢â¬Å"next to of course god america iÃ¢â¬ uses sarcasm to inform readers that the abuse of propaganda can be used to manipulate othersRead MoreHow Christians Influenced The United States1690 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA lot has happened over the this course learning everything from music in the 1960s to interrogation techniques of the current. The last ting we learned about our country is how Christians played a role in it. The history of we came to be in America, how we have an influence and the social enigmas with wanting it in politics. The main things we covered in the past eight weeks is how different events have effected or influenced the United States. We begin in the sixties and worked our way throughRead MoreThe Spiritual Autobiography By John Knight955 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconstruct the spiritual autobiography, I would start with the events, the people and the places that influenced the relationship with God or a higher being. According to Knight, those who were raised in a religious home their journey starts at birth and grows through age. (Knight, 2011) Parents who teach their children about God and who pray with them and worship with them have a close relationship with their God. Knight also states that should you find God later in life you may attribute that toRead MoreIs It The Most Acceptable?1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn God We Trust Have you ever taken a road trip through the United States? 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Those of the Golden Rule, as well as the wrongs of death and destruction
A Tale of Two Cities, written by Charles Dickens, takes place during the French Revolution. The book centers on the heroic attempts of Sydney Carton and Charles Darnay. Sydney Carton puts on the faÃ §ade of being insolent and indifferent, but his true nature is expressed in the book when he puts others first, defends Charles, and dies for the ones he loves. Charles Darnay is a once wealthy aristocrat whose attempts at heroism include going back to France, his financial sacrifice, and the noble way in which he was willing to face his death. Sydney Carton is a true hero in the way that he puts others first. He shows this quality as he works for Stryver to save the wrongfully accused from death and when he goes back to France to try to helpÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is true that Darnay was tried numerous times for treason. He was, however, acquitted more than once with the help of Carton. An example includes DarnayÃ¢â¬â¢s first trial where Carton forced the jury to realize that it was impossible to prove that Darnay was a passenger on the Dover Mail. He did this by calling to attention the intense similarities in appearance between himself and Darnay. This example brings out another one of CartonÃ¢â¬â¢s heroic qualities. Despite his outer attitude, Carton is a generally good-hearted character. It is later stated in the book by Carton to Darnay that Carton really does not like Darnay. With this fact known, the reader would realize that Carton must truly be heroic or else he would not have helped Darnay out at the trial. Carton further helps Darnay and implies more of his heroism when he dies for him. CartonÃ¢â¬â¢s great love and respect for Lucie holds him to the promise he made to her when he said that he would die for anyone she loved. The sheer act of heroism possessed him to buy the elixir that would cause Darnay to pass out, to switch clothing, and take DarnayÃ¢â¬â¢s place in prison. Carton knew that if his plan was discovered, he would be just as dead as Darnay. However, Carton kept in mind his promise and carried it through. At this point in time, Darnay expressed a sense of heroism as well because he was prepared to face his death without fear. Darnay would haveShow MoreRelatedGood vs Bad in a tale of two cities Essay722 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Good vs. Bad In the novel, A Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens opens with an anaphora, about how the world is throughout the novel. A reoccurring theme throughout this story is the battle between good and evil. Most of the novel is about the struggles each force has and how most of the time good triumphs over evil. In A Tale of Two Cities, the triumph of love, the death of the Marquis, and the contrast between Sydney Carton and Charles Darnay shows how good triumphed over evil. Throughout the
Question: Discuss about theKnowledge Management for Snapshot Industries. Answer: Introduction Snapshot Industries is a manufacturing organization which deals with the gardening and kitchenware. The company had approximately 200 staff members and had a high retention rate. There were some well-formed business processes and management of the organization never tried to deviate from it. The experienced team members of the organization had immense knowledge regarding the business processes and operations. The business basically comprised of plastic sections, machinery and tools factory and packaging and distribution office. The same business operations and systems were followed for a long time. The sales of the organization were steady and stable. Every employee of the organization has complete control over their work and had the responsibility and the freedom to accomplish their work in their own manner. All the employees of the organization had a well-developed understanding of where the other employees fit in the organization. The business processes can be characterized by pre dictability and comfort level. However, the death of the business owner caused major upheaval in the organization. The grandson of the owner took responsibility of the organizations management. It was presumed that the present manager will preserve the existing arrangements of the system. However, new changes were introduced in the organization such as hiring of movers or shakers, acquisition of other businesses in the service and manufacturing. During this time period, the number of employees was expanded from 200 to 600 and a complete restructuring was conducted in the organization. The number of products was reduced and the production number for each product was increased. Several teams were introduced for manufacturing the same product and incentive system was introduced to boost the performance of each team. However, this strategy increased the stress on the senior employees of the organization. Other changes were also introduced such as the development of a vigorous marketing team and a centralized personnel record system was also introduced. However, the introduction of the computing system overstressed the senior employees who were habitual of using pen and paper. With these restructuring processes, the employee stress heightened which is resulted in high employee turnover and absenteeism. With the high turnover of the senior employees, the knowledge of the previous employees was also lost. The new employees were kept out of the crucial information; therefore, when operational issue rose, they were unable to handle it. With the inadequate information and lack of direction, all the employees were confused and dissatisfied about the growth of the organization. It also raised several operational issues in the organization. In this regard, this report will examine the key issues in the current operations of Snapshot Industries and will provide recommendations to handle them in a better manner. Major Problem and Linkage to Knowledge Management The major issue in the operations of the organization was the in experience and lack of expertise of the new staff. Due to this reason, the staff members were unable to handle situations relating to operational issues in the organization. Moreover, although the new recruits worked with the senior employees for a large amount of time, they did not acquire any knowledge regarding the operations of the organization. It can be critiqued that the inability of knowledge transfer was the issue associated with the knowledge management of an organization (Borghoff and Pareschi, 2013). In the current times, knowledge management has become critical in the success of an organization. The knowledge management refers to the process of creating, sharing, using and managing knowledge and information in an organization (Hislop, 2013). It is an approach which assists an organization in reaching the organization objectives by maximizing the use of knowledge potential. The knowledge management is associ ated with the organization objectives such as improved performance, competitive performance, innovation and continuous improvement of the organization (Grover and Froese, 2016). The knowledge management efforts align with the organizational learning and focuses on the management of knowledge as an organization asset and sharing it for the better performance outcomes. Types of Knowledge in Snapshot Industries In a business organization, several types of knowledge exists. It is important to identify different types of knowledge and develop strategies to identify and synthesize them. All the knowledge identified in the organization can be categorized into explicit knowledge and implicit knowledge. The explicit knowledge is the knowledge which is formal in nature and can be codified. This type of knowledge is easy to identify, store and retrieve. The explicit information has the same challenges as that of other information documents. The most important challenge for the explicit information is that the people hae access to to provide employees access to the information whenever they need it. Constant review of information is also needed. The important information should be updated and obsolete information should be discarded. The explicit information is simple in nature; however, it does not contain the rich experience of the professional which is necessary to develop competitive advantage. The Snapshot industries possess this type of knowledge. The information regarding the operations and manuals to handle equipment are included in this type of knowledge (Hau, Kim, Lee and Kim, 2013). The tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge which is hard to define and basically based on the experience of the professionals. This knowledge refers to intuitive knowledge which is context dependent and personally gained through experience. In a business organization, this type of knowledge is considered as the most valuable source of knowledge and crucial in developing the innovation capabilities and sustained competitiveness of the organization. The senior employees knew how to handle production lines efficiently. It also included how to handle major faults in the production lines of the organization (Schoenherr, Griffith and Chandra, 2014). The senior employees of the company also had strategic knowledge which was essential for the operations of the organization. The strategic knowledge refers to the fit between procedural knowledge and contextual information which interlinks the financial, cultural, political, technical and institutional knowledge. The strategic knowledge refers to the knowledge related to complex events. In the present case, the strategic knowledge refers to the knowledge related to handle complex situations such as production in pressure or how to handle faulty lines. Resignation and Retirements as a Business Issue and Proposed Solution One of the major issues in the knowledge management of Snapshot Industries is the resignation and retirement of the senior employees. Although the fresh recruits from the college bring energy and enthusiasm to the work, the senior workforce is integral to the business development as they have crucial information regarding the business. The senior workforce has crucial information regarding the business processes and the business operations. In a business organization, the senior employees have knowledge regarding the processes which are unique to the organization. They not only have the theoretical knowledge but also crucial practical knowledge which is important for developing the competitive advantage of the organization. Massive resignations and retirements are a business issue for the organization as it results in the loss of the strategic information of the organization (Vnou?kov and Urbancov, 2015). In order to combat this issue, the organization must development human resource strategies. They should support the senior staff members in learning the new systems and provide comprehensive training to them. It is important to communicate to the employees that the changes are introduced to assist the employees in their daily operations. Although learning to handle the computer system will be difficult for the employees initially, the acquisition of knowledge will increase their efficiency and increase their productiveness (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). Issues related to the Leadership Strategy of the Organization and Proposed Solutions It can be critiqued from the analysis of the case that the organization was facing some serious issues related to the leadership strategy. The newly appointed CEO has the management degree and immense theoretical knowledge regarding the management and increasing the productivity of the organization. However, he lacked the practical knowledge of implementing successful change in the organization. The changes introduced in the organization were too drastic and the senior employees were unable to handle it which pushed them out of organization. It is the responsibility of the leader to consider the interest, strengths and the weakness of all the employees and motivate them together to embrace the change. Moreover, in any change process, the leader must develop a communication strategy so that all the employees do not remain dazed and confused. All the employees must be aware of the change plan so that they are prepared to adapt to the change. It is also important that the leader communicates the positives of the change process so that the employees remain motivated to embrace the change. The organization should also implement training and development activities so that all the employees are trained to work on new machines. The training should also include induction session so that the new employees are introduced with the operations of the organization and build good rapport with senior employees (Aarons, Ehrhart, Farahnak and Hurlburt, 2015). Business Areas Requiring the Knowledge Management Principles It can be identified that there are several operational areas within the organization which needs to reflect on the knowledge management principles. The production and the manufacturing departments should immediately adopt the knowledge management principles. In manufacturing organization, the existence of the whole business is dependent upon effective and efficient production. Manufacturing organizations often face spans wherein there is huge pressure from high demand from the market or empty spans in which there is minimal demand. It is important to optimize the production in both the cases so that the profitability can be maximized. (Geisler and Wickramasinghe, 2015) In addition to it, the organization should also embrace the knowledge management principles in marketing and sales department. The leading sales professionals of the organization understand how to pitch their products to the customers so that they are attracted towards its features and buy it. The marketing department are also aware of the marketing tactics and the strategy which will work on the target customers. In addition to it, the senior employees at high or managerial positions have significant amount of tactic knowledge which needs to be shared with the junior employees for the knowledge transfer. It includes allocating budgets, giving priorities to the business issues and handling small problems in the business (Rotaru and Borza, 2014). Snapshot has also integrated the human resource and personnel management system in the organization. Previously, every department has its own personnel management system and all the managers knew the capabilities and the worth of all the employees. Recruitment of large number of people and changes in team result in loss of this information. It is important that the organization implements a knowledge management system in the human resource department of organization so that the crucial information related to the employees remains with the organization. Knowledge Management as a Strategy Currently, Snapshot is facing several serious issues in the operational management. It needs a combination of strategies to increase the sustainability of the organization. The organization needs effective strategy in change management, knowledge management and human resource management. The leadership strategy is also needs to be adapted so that the organization can embrace the change positively. Among all these strategies, the strategy of knowledge management is crucial for the success of the organization. In order to create an effective knowledge management program, the organization needs to implement a systematic strategy for the transfer of knowledge within the organization. It is a multidisciplinary method which is focused on achieving the organization objectives by my maximizing the use of knowledge. The Knowledge Management efforts are part of the internal business strategy and emphasize on several organization objectives such as improved performance, increasing competitive a dvantage, innovation and continuous improvement of the organization (Reed et al., 2014). In knowledge management, the operations of an organization can be categorized in three stages and the knowledge can be obtained from any of these three stages. These stages are before, during and after KM related activities. The organizations try to capture knowledge by implementing several intervention strategies such as making the content submission necessary or incorporating rewards in performance management and knowledge sharing. The push strategy is commonly used for the knowledge management wherein the organization strive to encode the knowledge and motivates the employees to share knowledge into the knowledge sharing repository and provide means so that the employees can retrieve knowledge from other individuals (Ahern, Leavy and Byrne, 2014). The codification can be implemented on both tacit as well as explicit knowledge. The organization implements different strategies to store and retrieve both types of information. Another strategy which can be employed for the knowledge m anagement is pull strategy. In this strategy, the organization makes request to the experts of as particular subject to share their knowledge. In response to these requests, the individuals provide insight to their requester. Several companies commonly employ personalization strategy to increase knowledge sharing. It includes tactics such as mentorships and developing diversified teams. In mentorship alliance is formed between the experienced employees and thee fresh recruits such that the experienced employees transfer their knowledge with the inexperienced employees. By developing diversified teams, thee organization encourage communication and personal relationships with the people who come from diversified backgrounds. Every employee has individual skills and knowledge (Knight and Howes, 2012). By creating alliance of people from different backgrounds, an organization can promote knowledge sharing. Other than that, the company can also try to foster a culture in the organization which promotes sharing of information. It is important to imbibe in the organization culture that knowledge is important and should be shared and updated. It is important to develop strong leadership and culture of storytellin g to transfer tacit knowledge within the organization. Recently, large number of software have been developed to increase the knowledge sharing in the business organization (Meir, 2009). Snapshot Industries can utilize software such as groupware, Workflow, Enterprise portals and Telepresence. Although knowledge management is necessary strategy to address the current issues in the business organization, it is singularly not enough. The business organization should implement other strategies also to streamline the work process in the organization. It includes change management strategies and the human resource strategies. Recently, a large number of old and senior employees have resigned from their jobs. It is important to imlem4nt retention strategies so that loss of talent can be mitigated. The organization should identify that a large number of employees are resigning from their jobs as they lack the adequate skills to operate the new computing systems (McElroy, 2010). They also find it difficult to adjust to the new production lines and processes. Therefore, in order to control the turnover rate of the organization, it should implement adequate training and development facility so that the senior employees can accommodate new computing system. A significant amount of ti me should be given to the employee to learn and adjust to the new systems. Other than that, the organization should also implement effective change management strategy for successful change implementation. In order to implement successful change, the leadership should implement several methods to prepare the organization for change such as communication, providing training and development and providing substantial time for the stabilization of the processes (Becerra-Fernandez and Sabhrwal, 2014). The management should be prompt to listen to the problems of the employees and address them immediately for effective outcomes. Conclusion It can be concluded that knowledge management is an essential strategy for the organization success. Snapshot Industries is suffering from the lack of knowledge management strategies which has diminished the productivity of the organization and created several operational issues. In addition to it, the organization is also facing issues with the recent changes implemented by the new CEO of the organization. It has been identified that the most prominent operational issues in the organization are related to knowledge management, change management and human resource management. A large number of senior employees have resigned from their jobs which resulted in the loss of the tacit and strategic knowledge of the organization. The tacit knowledge refers to the knowledge which cannot be easily shared, stored or retrieved. This knowledge is developed by the experience of the people with the organization and the machine handling. Snapshots Industries can implement methods such as mentorship or creating diversified teams so that the tacit knowledge can be shared with the employees. The leadership should also change their management style. The leader should identify the strengths and the weaknesses of all the employees and implement change such that no employee is left out. It is important to make each employee feel valued within the organization. References Aarons, G.A., Ehrhart, M.G., Farahnak, L.R. and Hurlburt, M.S., 2015. Leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI): a randomized mixed method pilot study of a leadership and organization development intervention for evidence-based practice implementation. Implementation Science, 10(1), p.11. Ahern, T., Leavy, B. and Byrne, P.J., 2014. Complex project management as complex problem solving: A distributed knowledge management perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 32(8), pp.1371-1381. Armstrong, M. and Taylor, S., 2014. 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